Nukil Forbidden & The Mission Indian Federation
Membership dues receipt from the Mission Indian Federation dated 1927
Gift of Jeff Greenstein
Agua Caliente leaders decide to demolish the rustic bathhouse
located over the Agua Caliente Hot Spring and construct a new one in an
effort to promote health-focused tourism and to generate tribal income.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs formally forbids the most important ceremony in Cahuilla traditional life, the nukil (mourning) ceremony, fearing that such gatherings promote traditional Indian culture and compromise cultural assimilation efforts.
1919Southern California Indian tribes, frustrated with federal policies and practices, form the Mission Indian Federation – a pro-sovereignty political organization asserting tribal rights.